Thursday, May 12, 2016

Maharana Udai Singh II

Udai Singh II (August 4, 1522- February 28, 1572) was the Maharana of the Mewar and the founder of the city of Udaipur in the present day of Rajasthan state of Inida. Maharana Udai Singh was the 53rd ruler of the Mewar Dynasty. He was the fourth son of the Maharana Sangram Singh or Rana Sanga and the Rani Karnavati, the princess of Bundi.  Udai Singh II is parallel remembered for his breathtakingly beautiful queens, who were 20 in numbers. This son of Rana Sanga is invariably famous in the Rajputana history for the two reasons, one for being the father of the bravest son of the Mewar, Maharana Pratap and secondly for gifting the picturesque city of Udaipur to the world.

After the death of the Rana Sanga, his enemies tried to kill Udai Singh II who was only the child at that time. Udai Singh was rescued by his nurse Panna Dhai who replaced him with her own son and sacrificed his life for the safety of the young prince. Later when he ascended the throne, he was attacked by the Akbar. At this time he already left Chittor 9 years ago, ending up in the Udaipur, giving Mewar its new capital.

The city of lakes ‘Udaipur’ is named after its founder, who then made it his capital even before Chittor was sacked by Akbar. When the Mughal army attacked Chittor, the then capital of Mewar, Maharana Udai Singh II and the royal family had already left for Gogunda, making it a temporary capital until Udai singh II shifted to Udaipur, making the gem the new capital of Mewar.
Udai Singh II who is less famous for his courage and bravery as his ancestors Rana Kumbha or the Rana Sanga, became the proud father of the Maharana Pratap who marked the Rajputana history with his heroism and the valour, making his father’s presence in the history significant and imperative.

Tuesday, May 10, 2016


Ashoka Maurya commonly known as Ashoka and also as Ashoka the Great was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty who ruled almost the entire Indian subcontinent from the circa 269 BCE to 232 BCE, grandson of Chandragupta. One of the India’s greatest emperors, Ashoka reigned over the realm that stretched from the Hindu Kush Mountains in the west of Bengal in the East and covered the entire Indian subcontinent except parts of the present day Tamil Nadu and Kerela. The empire’s capital was the Pataliputra (in Magadha, present day-Bihar), with the provincial capitals at Taxila and Ujjain.

In about 260 BCE Ashoka waged a bitterly destructive war against the state of Kalinga. He conquered Kalinga, which none of his ancestors had done. He embraced Buddhism after witnessing the mass deaths of the Kalinga war, which he himself had waged out of the desire for the conquest.

He reflected on the war in Kalinga, which reportedly had resulted in more than 100,000 deaths and 150,000 deportations. Ashoka converted gradually to Buddhism beginning about the 263 BCE.

Ashoka is also referred to as Samraat Chakravartin Ashoka – the “Emperors Ashoka”.

Ashoka ruled for an estimated forty years. Legend states that during his cremation, his body burned for seven days and nights. After, the death of Ashoka, the Mauryan dynasty lasted just 50 more years until his empire stretched over almost the entire Indian subcontinent.

In the year 185 BCE, about 50 years after Ashoka’s death, the last Maurya ruler, Brihadratha, was assassinated by the commander-in- chief of the Mauryan armed forces, Pushyamitra Shunga, while he was taking the Guard of Honour his forces. Pushyamitra Shunga founded the Shunga dynasty (185 BCE-75 BCE) and ruled just the fragmented part of the Mauryan Empire. Many of the north-western territories of the Mauryan Empire became the Indo-Greek Kingdom.

King Ashoka, the 3rd monarch of the Indian Mauryan dynasty, is also considered as one of the most exemplary ruler ever lived.

Saturday, May 7, 2016


Babur, 1483-1530, founder of the Mughal Empire of India. Zahir-ud-din Muhammad Babur also called as Baber or Babar was the conqueror from the Central Asia who, following the serious of setbacks finally succeeded in laying the basis for the Mughal dynasty in Indian Subcontinent and became the first Mughal emperor. Babur was the direct descendant of Timur, from the Barlas clan, through his father, and also the descendant of Genghis Khan through his mother. Culturally, he was greatly influenced by the Persian culture and his father, and also the descendant of the Genghis Khan through his mother.
Culturally, he was greatly influenced by the Persian culture and this affected both his own actions and those of his successors, giving rise to the significant expansion of the Persian ethos in the Indian subcontinent.

Though born as Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur, he was commonly known as Babur. He was the eldest son of Umar Sheikh Mirza, through whom he has his ancestral roots to Timur. He ascended the throne of Farghana in 1495 at the age of twelve and faced rebellion from his own relatives. He conquered Samarkhand two years later, only to lose Farghana soon after. In his attempt to re-conquer the city, he lost control of Samarkand. In 1501, his attempt to recapture the cities went in vain as he was defeated by Muhammad Shaybani Khan. In 1504, he conquered Kabul  which was under the rule of the infant heir of Ulugh Begh . Babur formed a partnership with Safavid ruler Ismail I and re-conquered parts of central Asia including Samarkand only to lose again to Uzbeks.

It was only after losing the city for the third time; he drew his attention to create his empire in India. At that time, north India was ruled by Ibrahim Lodi of the Lodi dynasty. In 1524, he got an invitation from his uncle Daulat Khan Lodi to overthrow Ibrahim and establish his rule. Babur then defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat in 1526 to establish the Mughal Empire, which ruled India till 1857. However, he again had to face opposition, this time from Rana Sanga of Mewar who considered Babur as a foreigner. The Rana was defeated at the Battle of Khanwa.

Babur married several times and notable among his sons are Humayun, Kamran Mirza and Hindal Mirza. He died in 1530 and was succeeded by Humayun. According to Babur’s wishes, he was buried in Bagh-e-Babur at the Kabul in Afganisthan.

Wednesday, May 4, 2016


Humayun (OS 7 March 1508 – OS 27 January 1556) was the second Mughal Emperor who ruled over territory in what is now Afganisthan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1531–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father,Babur, he lost his kingdom early, but regained it with the aid of the Safavid dynasty of Persia, with additional territory. At the time of his death in 1556, the Mughal Empire spanned almost one million square kilometers.

Humayun succeeded his father in 1531, as ruler of the Mughal territories in India. At the age of 23, Humayun was an inexperienced ruler when he came to power. His half-brother Kamran Mirza inherited Kabul and Lahore, the more northern parts of their father’s empire. Mirza was to become a bitter rival of Humayun.

Humayun lost Mughal territories to the Pashtun noble, Sher Shah Suri, and, with Persian (Safavid) aid, regained those 15 years later. Humayun’s return from Persia was accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen and signaled an important change in Mughal court culture. The Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture, language and literature. There are many stone carvings and thousands of Persian manuscripts in India dating from the time of Humayun.

Subsequently, in a very short time, Humayun was able to expand the Empire further, leaving a substantial legacy for his son, Akbar. His peaceful personality, patience and non-provocative methods of speech earned him the title ’Insān-i-Kamil (‘Perfect Man’), among the Mughals

Tuesday, May 3, 2016

Chandragupta Maurya

The Maurya Empire, the ancient Indian dynasty, c.325-c.183 B.C by the Chandragupta Maurya, who had overthrown the Nanda Dynastyand rapidly expanded his power westwards across the central and western India, taking  the advantage of disruptions of the local powers in the wake of withdrawal westwards the Alexander the Great’s Hellenic armies.

The Maurya Empire was one of the largest empires of the world in its time. It was also the largest empire ever in the Indian subcontinent.

Conquest of Magadha:

Chanakya encouraged Chandragupta Maurya and his army to take over the throne of Magadha. Using his intelligence network, Chandragupta gathered many young men from across Magadha and other provinces, men upset over the corrupt and oppressive rule of king Dhana, and took all the necessary resources for his army to fight a long serious of battle.

The preparation to invade the Pataliputra, Maurya came up with the strategy. The battle was announced and Magadhan army was drawn from the city to the distant battlefield to engage Maurya’s forces. Maurya’s   general and spies meanwhile bribed the corrupt general of Nanda. He managed to create an atmosphere of civil war in the kingdom, which culminated in the death of heir to the throne. Chanakya managed to win over popular sentiment. Ultimately, Nanda resigned, handing the power to Chandragupta, and went into the exile and was never heard of again.

Chanakya also reiterated that choosing to resists would start the war that would severely affect the Magadha and destroy the city. Rakshasa accepted the Chanakya’s reasoning and Chandragupta Maurya was legitimately made the new king of the Magadha.

Bindusara was the son of the first Mauryan emperor Chandragupta Maurya and his queen Durdhara. During his reign, the empire expanded southwards. Bindusara, just 22 years old inherited the large empire that considered of what is now, Northern, central and Eastern parts of India along with parts of Afghanistan and Baluchistan. Bindusara extended this empire to the southern part of India as far as what is now known as Karnataka.  He bought sixteen states under the Mauryan Empire and thus conquered almost the entire Indian peninsula. Bindusara didn’t conquer the friendly Dravidian Kingdoms of the Cholas, ruled by the king llamcetcenni, the Pandyas and Cheras. Apart from these southern states, Kalinga (modern Odisha) was the only kingdom in the Indian didn’t form the part of the Bindusara’s empire. It was later conquered by his son Ashoka, who was served as the Viceroy of Ujjaini during his father’s reign.

Chandragupta’s grandson Ashoka Vardhana Maurya, son of Bindusara was also known as the Asoka, Ashoka or the Ashoka the Great (reign 272-232 BCE).

Ashoka was followed for 50 years by the succession of weaker kings. Brihadrata, the last ruler of the Mauryan dynasty, held territories that had shrunk considerably from the time of the emperor Ashoka.

Bappa Rawal

Bappa Rawal had born Prince kalbhoj, c. 713-810, eight ruler of the Guhilot Rajput Dynasty and the founder of the Mewar Dynasty (r.734-753) in the present day Rajasthan, India. Bappa Rawal obtain Chittor in the dowry from Maan Mori

Bappa Rawal is known for his strong pride in his Dharma and culture, for defeating the alien Arabian invaders and being the great, glorious and brave king. He started as the ruler of the small principality in Nagahrad (Nagda), and extended his ruler ship up to Chittaud.

Bappa Rawal was one of the most powerful and the famous rulers of Mewar Dynasty. Bappa was also blessed by Harita, the sage of the Mewar region with the kingship. He based the capital of Mewar in the fortress city of Chittor. In order to face the Muslim invasions across the western borders of Rajputana, Bappa united the smaller states of Ajmer and Jaisalmer to repel the invaders.
In the 39th century of Kaliyuga (i.e 8th century A.D). Muslims started attacking India within the few decades of the birth of Islam. Bappa Rawal fought and defeated the Arab invaders in the country and also turned the tide against them and dominated the aliens in their own territory. For few hundred years hundred years they had no success. Bin Qasim was unable to defeat the Dahir in Sindhi but was routed by the Bappa Rawal. Qasim attacked Chittore, which was ruled by the Mori Rajputs via Mathura. Bappa, of Guhilote dynasty was the commander in Mori army and so was the Dahir’s son.
Bappa Rawal defeated and pursued Bin Qasim through Saurashtra and back to Sindh. After this defeats of the caliphate at the hands of Bappa, for the next few hundred years there were no more Islamic incursion into India.

Bappa was also known to be just ruler.  He abdicated the throne in favour of his son- rather made his son as the king and he turned into Siva upasaka (worshipper of Shiva) and became a Yati (an ascetic who has full control over his passion).

Monday, May 2, 2016

Amar singh Rathore

Amar Singh Rathore (11 December 1613 - 25 July 1644)  was a Rajput nobleman affiliated with the royal house of Marwar, and a courtier of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in seventeenth-century India. After he was disinherited and exiled by his family, he entered the Mughals' service.

His legendary bravery and battle prowess resulted in elevation to a high rank in the imperial nobility and personal recognition by the emperor, who made him the Subedar (governor) of a region that was directly ruled by the emperor himself, Nagaur. In 1644, he was enraged by an attempt by the emperor to levy a fine on him for an unauthorized absence. In the emperor's presence, he stabbed and killed Salabat Khan, who had been asked to collect the fine.

He was the famous fighter who jumped from Agra Fort with his horse.

Raja Gaj Singh ruling Marwar region under Mughul ruler Shah Jahan. His son Amar Singh Rathore was great warrior and a patriot but was dis-inherited by his father and exiled for reasons unknown. Later, he joined Shah Jahan in Delhi Sultanate. Shah Jahan impressed by his gallantry, even made him Jagirdar of Nagaur. However Salabat Khan, brother-in-law of the emperor, was envious of Amar Singh Rathore's rise in the state and was waiting for an opportunity to discredit Amar Singh. He got opportunity soon when he learned some trifle about Amar Singh's unauthorised absence. Salabat blown it up as an issue so much that the Moghul Monarch asked Salabat to fine Amar Singh.
Shah Jahan was furious at Amar's misadventure and annoyed by the fact his force couldn't kill Amar. So next day in court, the emperor announced that a Jagir (land grant) will be given to those who would kill Amar Singh but no one was ready to take a chance with Amar Singh Rathore, as they faced his wrath just a day before. Arjun, Amar Singh's brother-in-law, accepted the challenge, lured by the emperor's offer of a jagir. Arjun approached Amar claiming the Monarch realised his mistake and would not lose a warrior Amar. Even though Amar was not convinced at the beginning, but he soon fell to Arjun's art of treachery.

On hearing Amar Singh's death, his wife along with the Rajput soldiers headed by Bhallu Singh and Ram Singh attacked the fort where the body of Amar Singh was lying. However, thousands of Moghul soldiers surrounded the Rajput forces. The valiant Rajput forces resisted them until Amar Singh's body was taken away from the fort. Though all of those Rajput fighters laid down their lives, but never bowed to the superiority of the Moghul Sultanate.